Saturday, February 18, 2017

Tlos: Brilliant Metropolis

Photos by Jack A. Waldron
The fact that Tlos is so close in proximity to Fethiye, and that the entire area has attracted masses of visitors over the centuries due to the frigid fresh water springs that flow non-stop down the slopes of the city, it is very surprising that so much of the ancient city is so well preserved, and has survived until the present.  Pictured above, the Hellenistic/Roman Theater of Tlos.
What was so unfortunate with regard to my visit to Tlos, was that the entire area surrounding the monument had/has been fenced off due to the ongoing restoration work . . . so, all of my photos of the theater were manipulated from outside this barrier.
It is fantastic to think that the treasures on display at the Archeological Museum in Fethiye (ancient Telemessos) were found during excavations of the stage building.
It is very possible that the great Roman emperors continued to be admired within the Eastern Roman empire long after the Western Roman empire had fallen, and that the Roman citizens of the East found pride and strength in the accomplishments of the distant past.  Therefore, these theater sculptures may have been able to hold their ground of place.
Or, perhaps having lost their significance, they were entombed within the cellar of the stage building, only to be miraculously rescued some thousand years later.
Before Hercules, there was Bellerophon, to whom the city of Tlos was sanctuary.  The slayer of monsters and the killer of Chimera, Bellerophon was/is the fire breathing lion headed goat bodied beast that whipped its serpent headed tail toward its prey.
The Temple of Cronus at Tlos is a very well preserved monument that was most likely built during the 2C AD.  The descendant of the sky (the god Uranus, his father) and the earth (the goddess Gaia, his mother), Cronus is often depicted holding a sickle, scythe or a harpe (a sword with a sickle protrusion near the tip), as this was the instrument he is said to have used to castrate his father when he deposed.
Cronus took power during the Golden Age, a mythological time of peace, harmony and stability, when humans didn't have to work and the earth provided food in plenty.  It would seem apparent that depictions of Heaven are taken from these original myths.
It would also seem ironic that Cronus would become the god of the harvest (due to the symbolism of his sickle or scythe), and that, while his sickle, scythe or harpe would seem so out of place during the Golden Age, would rise to prominence in a post Golden Age task or work that humans reportedly avoided under his reign.
Regardless of the inconsistencies of myth and religion,  this small Roman temple is in a remarkable state of preservation, and may benefit further from ongoing excavations as its scattered members are recovered from throughout the city and placed back into their originally intended function within the monument.
Situated in front of and across from the Temple of Cronus is the City Basilica, whose construction and additions span from the early to middle Byzantine period (pictured above).
Pictured below, the Palaestra sits atop a terrace supported by a long colonnaded stoa (pictured in the forefront), with the Small Bath or Gymnasium at its far end (pictured in the middle), and the Great Bath behind (pictured rising behind and above the Small Bath) as viewed from across the wide expanse of the Stadium area.
Constructed during the early Roman period in a common Lycian style, marble columns supporting a monumental gate would have invited visitors into the frigidarium of the Great Bath (pictured above).  Again, due to ongoing excavation and restoration, a fence surrounding the monument made it impossible to enter the Great Bath.
Peering out at the vast expanse of the Xanthus valley between the Great Bath on the left and the Small Bath or Gymnasium on the right, one can imagine what must have been a most pleasing experience when sitting under one of the several arched windows built into the apsidal of the frigidarium in the Great Bath on a hot summers' day . . . , that is, unless a great army was on the march toward the city with intensions to conquer!
Construction of the Small Bath or Gymnasium is believed to have begun during the early Roman period, with several repairs having been undertaken at later dates due to damage from earthquakes.  Pictured above, an archway leads into the frigidarium of the Small Bath or Gymnasium.
Pictured above, the archway in the forefront leads into the tepidarium, while the archway beyond to the back and to the right lead into the caladium.  Beyond these arches and the building itself lay the open grounds of the Palaestra, which was surrounded by a colonnade.
Pictured above, a view from the Small Bath or Gymnasium across the vast Stadium grounds.  The rows of Stadium seating can be seen at the far end, with the Acropolis rising above the city.  Below, a view looking back at the supporting structure of the Stadium Stoa with the Palaestra situated on top, and the Small Bath or Gymnasium rising at the far end.
Tlos is truly unique as an ancient Greek or Roman city in that, its Stadium contains one of the most amazing features not found at any other site to which I am aware of, and that feature is a truly monumental length olympic swimming pool that, is unmatched in length by any modern swimming pool we have today, some two-thousand years on (the start platform pictured below).
How the massive blocks that were used to build this pool avoided being repurposed into later construction is quite interesting, unless the pool remained in use until late antiquity, and perhaps not for swimming, but as a source of drinking water, or other . . . a massive open cistern, if you will, or a city canal, not unlike the manmade canal that runs through ancient Perge.
Judging from the size of the field of sport at Tlos, games must have play a significant role in the lives of its citizens.
Though the Stadium seating would appear to be limited in seating, there are numerous vantage points surrounding the field from which spectators would have been able to enjoy the events.
Tlos is a beehive of archeological activity with many of the monuments cordoned off from entry, and this included the sports field.  Pictured below, archeologists can be seen at the far end of the swimming pool.
The picture above was taken from the top of the stadium wall, on which sit several sarcophagi atop their podiums (pictured further down).
This area on the side of the acropolis begins an entry into the Necropolis and rock tombs that surround the citadel.
The Lycian sarcophagi and house tombs that adorn the acropolis kept the deceased close at hand with the living, with one such tomb being identified as the Tomb of Bellerophon, a large unfinished temple-type tomb with a relief sculpted into the rock of the hero riding Pegasus, his winged horse (pictured below).
Two bikes, two classics, both loved, both a pleasure to ride, one with a much much smaller carbon footprint . . . 
So, the story goes that I was returning down the mountain from the ancient city of Oenoanda, the city made most famous for its massive agora wall with numerous inscriptions of the philosophy of Epicurus carved into it, when I decided to take a detour of about a kilometer in order to stock up on food for my camp that evening.
Whilst I was shopping in the village A101, which is a chain discount market that competes with BIM and SOK, I was greeted by a fellow shopper, whose name I would come to know as Rayna.  So, I continued gathering my supplies, cashed them out, and proceeded to load them into my bike bags, when I heard another greeting in English from a gentle voiced man,"Hello, my name is Stuart."
To make a long story short, Rayna and Stuart asked me where I was cycling, what I was cycling for, and where I was going to sleep that evening?  I told them that I would make a camp somewhere in the bush, and that was when they invited me to camp at their place, about 10 kilometers further down the road.
They are both documentary makers from England, and were in the middle of a one year sabbatical project, which is their future retirement home.  The ancient city of Tlos is a mere five kilometers up the slope from their property, where they are restoring two old farm houses.  They are two of the most lovely, passionate, caring individuals I have ever met, and I will see them again in the future, hopefully in Fethiye Bay, when we share gin and tonics on my future sailboat.

*All photos and content property of Jack A. Waldron (photos may not be used without written permission)

Saturday, February 11, 2017

Cadyanda: City in the Pines

Photos by Jack A. Waldron
I had exhausted my water supply during my long survey of ancient Cadyanda or Kadyanda, so I went searching for a cesme (spring fountain), and after having found one alongside the country road, a local family invited me to have a caravan lunch with them, that included grilled lamb with Turkish bread, fresh tomato and cay (tea).
The rocky road to Cadyanda is quite steep, and unpaved.  Pictured above is the valley below the ancient city from which I had climbed.  Cadyanda sits approximately 900 meters above sea level, while the ancient site sits about 300 meters above the town of Uzumlu, from which they are mutually visible.
According to Pliny the Elder, the Lycian name for the ancient city Kadawanti, which unlike the more recent ruins, dates back beyond the 6C BC.  Most of the visible ruins today date between the 4C BC and the later Roman period.
The Necropolis is located outside the city walls and is quite extensive, and includes numerous inscriptions.  Ranging from early to late antiquity, the impressive tombs of Cadyanda deserve a greater amount of attention with regard to their importance to the history of the site.
Dating from the Hellenistic period, the tomb pictured below includes a lengthy inscription detailing the life of the person who was entombed here.
The slope of the Necropolis is a library of those who lived and died in Cadyanda.  Such ancient sites as this are in need of funds to continue their excavation, restoration and to protect them.
These vaulted tombs of Cadyanda are of one type to be found in Lycia, though quite different from the pillar tombs that can be seen at sites such as Xanthus or Cyaneae.  There is however a pillar tomb about 1.5 kilometers south of Uzumlu, but unfortunately I didn't have time to search it out.  Another tomb I was longing to visit is a house tomb carved out of solid rock with reliefs on three of the four outer walls.
On display in the Fethiye Archeological Museum is a fine collection of Roman altars, which would have been located around temples, in houses, the agora, the theater, the necropolis, the stadium, and throughout the greater city.
Usually inscribed with the name of the family, man or woman who dedicated the altar, and the god to whom the altar wished to appease, Roman altars came in various shapes and sizes, and were often decorated with elaborate depictions of ox skulls, vines, flowers, and so on.
There is also a third tomb closer to Uzumlu which is carved out of a massive boulder that has broken off from the cliff.  This tomb has a relief that covers one side.
With regard to the ancient sites around Turkey, excavation, maintenance of the sites, and security of the antiquities vary greatly.  Cadyanda is a tinderbox waiting to go up in smoke.
With the entire site being covered by a thick pine forest, it is a most magical place, and a quite refreshing retreat from the heat of the lower climes.
However, with the several feet of pine needles covering the ancient city, it wouldn't take much of a spark to lose the entire extent of monuments.
It seems very fitting that ancient cups such as these on display at the Fethiye Archeological Museum (pictured above and below), would be decorated with the pine cone motif, as cities such as Cadyanda were located amongst the pine forests, and apparently were relished greatly by the citizens who lived there.
Pictured below, the steps of the Heroon monument lead to what once must have been an ornately carved structure to are fallen hero, whether god or human, its size is quite impressive.
Pictured below, just another monument, in this case the Heroon at Cadyanda, which awaits the funding for restoration.
A beautifully carved marble Heroon member sits at the bottom of the heap strewn down the hill (pictured above and below).
As the whole site is covered in up to a meter of dead dried pine needles, it is challenging to discern the city plan, layout, streets, stoas, etc.  The Agora at Cadyanda presented just such a scenario.
I would like to propose a revolutionary idea here and now, and I'd like to begin with a question: Why are university students who are majoring in archeology living on or near university campuses?  
Libraries are now digital, prefabricated housing units are cheap and mobile.  Students and professors must live, learn and work on site!  Cisterns could be revitalized, low cost maintenance crews consisting of locals could be organized and directed.
The guidebooks are not mistaken, as the views and serenity of the ancient site are more than worth another day at the beach.  I saw only six other visitors during my four hour stay at Cadyanda.
The city is encircled by a Hellenistic wall built in the polygonal stone style.
Towers within the construction of the wall have not as of yet been found, which might explain the use of windows, that would have allowed the defenders to view their enemy with a modicum of protection (pictured above and below).
Pictured below, a view of the plain and the sea at Fethiye from atop the defensive wall that surrounds Cadyanda.
Continuing through the forest covered ancient city, an arched entryway of the Roman Bath becomes visible in the city center.
The inside of the Roman Bath is filled with at least a meter and a half of dried pine needles and mulch.  A lightening strike at the site could easily wipe out the monuments that are now above ground as the result of excavation.
Pictured above, an arched passageway leads into the Roman Bath, while below, a two-fingered squiggle on a roof tile proudly pronounces the makers-mark.
Directly next to the Roman Bath on its north side is the humble Stadium measuring approximately nine meters in width.  With it's long six row high seating stretching 90 meters into the distance, it is a testament to the richness of the site, quaint yet complete with regard to its facilities.
Pictured above, I am standing at the far end of the Stadium, with rows of seats on the left that have yet to be excavated.  Below, a special entrance located centrally in the seating, perhaps purposed for the entrance of athletes, VIP visitors, or a simply to allow access to the facility for spectators.
According to several inscriptions at the site, there were two main athletic festivals held at the Stadium annually.  At the end of the Stadium pictured below, a large Stoa measuring one-hundred meters in length can be found, as well as the Gymnasium.
At the center of the six rows of seating on the north side of the Stadium, a Hellenistic Doric temple sits in a heap of columns and other building members (pictured below).
Pictured above and below, a finely carved section of the architrave or epistyle can be found amongst the various temple members.  With the proper resources, such monuments as this Hellenistic temple could be properly excavated, and even perhaps partially restored.
Pictured below, a section of the Hellenistic temple regulae or gut tae with its signature circular relief pattern, here wedged between a resilient pine tree and the collapsed monument.
Walking to the southern end of the stadium, I followed the path past several cisterns until I came to a steep ridge, and there below me was a majestic Theater.
I slowly defended the ridge until I arrived atop a high retaining wall that for the past two-thousand years has kept the hilltop from sliding down into the monument.

With the retaining wall being much to tall for me to drop directly down into the Theater seating, I had to make my way around the ridge to a path that followed the city wall, which is itself incorporated into the theater as a support wall for the theater stage building (pictured below).
The beginnings of the Theater was probably of a smaller pre-Roman design as evidenced through older masonry, and that was most certainly expanded upon under Roman governance.  It contains 18 rows of seating around a post-Hellenistic design of a semicircle cavea.
As can be seen above, the support wall beneath the theater is constructed of polygonal stone.
As you can see in the photo above, the bottom of the stage building is constructed with the use of polygonal stone work, while the top is constructed with the use of ashlar isodomic or classical stone work.
Pictured above, a corner section of geison or cornice of the stage building, which most certainly is of the Roman period, sits among the scattered members within the cavea.  
Pictured below, a beautifully sculpted section of the stage building entablature with its triglyphs and regulae or guttae sit where it collapsed in the ancient past.
Pictured above, a view of the stage building from the theater seating.  Below, a view of the retaining wall at the top of the seating.
Pictured above, a view of a collapsed section of the seating from atop the theater, with the stage building in the center of the photo.
While cycling back to Fethiye, I unsuspectingly came across this interesting tumulus next to the road.  I don't know the history behind the structure, but will do some investigation in order to add some information.

*All photos and content property of Jack A. Waldron (photos may not be used without written permission)